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Physics is a branch of science that has a huge part to play in almost everything that surrounds us. In one way or the other physics plays a role in every particle. From theories like gravitation to nuclear fission everything involves physics.
The discoveries and inventions of some physicists have literally changed our lives in a massive way. Some of their contributions were not just for science; it was to the entire human race. In this article, we will see some of the greatest physicists of all time.
The first thing that hits our mind when we say Isaac Newton is gravity. It is one of the greatest discoveries not just in the field of physics, but in the whole world. He was born in the year 1643. Some of his important works include calculus and optics. He is the recipient of a lot of honors which also includes the prestigious presidency of Royal Society. We all know that his theory of gravity commands a very important place in the in many ways.
Niels Bohr was born in Copenhagen in the year 1885. He was the one who developed the modern idea of the atom. The proposed structure consists of a nucleus in the center and the negatively charged electrons revolving it. His theory laid the basis for the atomic energy that we use today. His work won the Nobel Prize in the year 1922. As a token of love and a gesture of appreciation the famous beer brand, Carlsberg gifted him a house which had a pipe connection that connected to its brewery. It means he got free beer for a lifetime. Some of his other contributions include his efforts to open the particle physics facility Cern.
The theory of relativity which is considered to be one of the most important theories in the world was proposed by Albert Einstein. He was born in the year 1879 in Germany. He is an inspiration and an icon in the field of physics. His work actually proved that space and time are malleable and fluid. His famous equation showed the world the mass and energy equivalence. He was a well-known figure and was treated more like a celebrity. He won the Nobel Prize in the year 1921.
Marie Curie is the first women to win the Nobel Prize and also the first person to win two separate Nobel Prizes. Marie Curie was born in Poland in the year 1867. Her first Nobel is for discovering radioactivity with the husband. She won the second Nobel in the year 1911 for discovering radium. Many say that it was her work with radium caused her early death.
Ernest Rutherford was born in New Zealand in the year 1871. He is considered to be one of the best experimental physicists of all time. His investigation into the disintegration of elements won him the Nobel Prize in the year 1908. He later became the director of Cavendish Laboratory in the Cambridge University.
Today the human race has come so far that we are planning to colonize Mars. When it comes to science, it has always been the effort of a few individuals that have changed a lot of things in the world. The discoveries and inventions have impacted in both good and bad ways.
The discoveries and inventions happen on a regular basis. But there are only a few that will have so much importance and has a considerable amount of impact in the particular field. In this article, we will discuss the important discoveries in the field of Astrophysics.
The Dark Energy has been discovered by using the Hubble constant and the supernovae of distant stars. According to it, the universe is not contracting and not static. On the contrary, the universe is expanding, and it is speeding up. To account for this concept, an unknown form of energy called the dark energy was proposed by the leading and eminent astrophysicists. There is still a debate going on whether it is a scalar property or something dynamic. As of now, the astrophysics states that 74% of the energy in the universe is dark energy.
The age of the universe
Until a point, the age of the universe was something that cannot be calculated. It remained a huge question among a lot of people. We should especially thank the red shifting measurements for this discovery. It is because of that the cosmic background radiation, and the age of some of the globular clusters in the galaxy was found. This is how the scientists were able to calculate the age of the universe which is approximately 13.75 billion years.
Red shifting and the Hubble constant
The speed at which the galaxy is receding away from the earth can be calculated by the Hubble’s Law. This shows that galaxies are constantly moving away from us. By this, it also provides the basis for the Big Bang Theory. This discovery in particular contributed a lot to the research of many other scientists which showed that the speed at which the galaxies are expanding is faster than what was predicted. It was based on the redshifts of distant supernovae.
Even some common people know about black hole because of the unparalleled work of Stephen Hawking. A black hole is a region in space where everything that comes near it gets sucked. Nothing can escape from a black hole, not even light. It is because of the massive gravitational force from a single point. Many astrophysicists believe that black holes are formed because of the collapsing of the stars. It is also stated that most of the spiral galaxies have a black hole in the center of it.
The Theory of Relativity
The Theory of Relativity was proposed by the famous scientist Albert Einstein in the year 1915. Relativity theory replaced Newton’s theory of mechanics as the basis of astronomy. According to Einstein, the motion was relative and time is a concept that is depended on velocity. The Theory of Relativity paved ways to many discoveries and explained many concepts.
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